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Your 2 Min Week in Review – March 19, 2018

Review of the week of March 19, 2018:

Dropbox has successfully IPO’d

Dropbox raised it’s expected price range mid week and ended up selling shares to institutional investors at $21. The shares (Nasdaq: DBX) JUST started trading now and the price immediately popped $9 to $30, a 44% increase.

I think Dropbox is a hot potato that you won’t want to be left holding but I’ll be keeping an eye on how things go. Personally, I’m more excited about the Spotify IPO in early April (more below).

Liquidating Toys”R”Us

The 70 year old brick and mortar toy retailer is liquidating its assets and hundreds of stores will close worldwide over the next few weeks. While Amazon is delivering the smiles these days, Toys”R”Us has one final gift for us grown-up kids: The story of their rise and fall.

Category Killer

A Category Killer is a sector specialist that leverages their narrow focus to gain a competitive edge over less focused firms through increased bargaining power, pricing tactics, large selection, and strong branding. It’s believed that Toys”R”Us was the very first category killer.

How Putin Protects His Power

Putin has been elected for another 6 year term as President of Russia. Key take away: In order to protect power, first focus on getting the right pieces to the right place at the right time. Then worry about covering your tracks and making things look legitimate.

Spotify IPO

Spotify plans to skip the most expensive and stressful parts of an IPO in early April by directly listing their stock on the market (DPO: Direct Public Offering) and letting current shareholders and would-be buyers do what markets do best: price discovery. I’m excited for this one!

The Facebook Freakout

I’ve learned that the vast, vast majority of people have no clue what the Facebook freakout is all about. Don’t be one of them – get the facts. A few hours after I published my piece on the situation, Zuck posted an adept statement – walking the tightrope of trying to please shareholders, employees, and user. This morning’s Exponent podcast has a fantastic recap and analysis.

IPO Meltdown

Speaking of IPOs and Facebook, I wrote about the crisis that happened during the Facebook IPO back in 2012 and a few tips for how to manage crisis. This pairs nicely with my post a few weeks back: The Anatomy of a Disaster.

Autonomous Car Killed Pedestrian

The first pedestrian fatality involving an autonomous car happened this week. More people are going to die because of self-driving cars. But these deaths are the cost of saving more lives.

The Spotify IPO, an IPO Meltdown, and Melting Down Toys”R”Us

It’s Tuesday, March 20, 2018 and today we’re talking about: the Spotify IPO, an IPO Meltdown, and Melting Down Toys”R”Us. Avg read time: 4 min 45 sec. But you’re better than average.

ToysRUs Liquidation Bankruptcy

 

Spotify IPO

Dropbox isn’t the only company about to have its initial public offering. Spotify – the 11 year old music streaming service – is set to IPO in the next few weeks as well. But Spotify is doing things their own way. The Stockholm, Sweden company is doing a direct listing.

This means that Spotify isn’t spending millions to hire an investment bank, isn’t creating new shares to sell, isn’t doing a roadshow to woo potential institutional investors, isn’t setting an offering price, and isn’t selling newly issued shares to institutional investors the night before the IPO so they can then sell those shares on the public market the next day.

On April 3, 2018, current Spotify shareholders will be able to sell their shares directly on the New York Stock Exchange. This Direct Public Offering (DPO) is somewhat rare.

Maybe most importantly, Spotify won’t be raising money with this DPO since they’re not creating new shares and not actually selling any either. Only existing shareholders will be able to sell shares and only they will receive money for those shares. Finally – and this might be the coolest (and riskiest) part – buyers and sellers will have to discover prices without the guidance of an investment bank’s guesstimate. #priceDiscovery!

While both the Dropbox IPO and the Spotify DPO are worth paying attention to, only one is music to my ears. For more information, watch Spotify’s Investor Day for over 2 hours of details.

“Without deviation from the norm, progress is not possible.”
― Frank Zappa

This segment was inspired by The Indicator on March 19, 2018.

IPO Meltdown

Speaking of IPOs, I came across this great HBR story Monday that I’d never heard before about the Facebook IPO in 2012. Apparently the Nasdaq had a crisis while the stock was supposed to be trading live for the first time.

As the start of trading approached, hundreds of thousands of orders poured in. But when 11:05 arrived, nothing happened.

The computer code that was supposed to facilitate the exchange of billions of dollars for the IPO was reporting that something was wrong. Nasdaq managers decided to disable the check that was failing and move forward with the big day.

When the validation check was removed, trading started, but the workaround caused a series of failures. It turned out the check had initially picked up on something important: a bug that caused the system to ignore orders for more than 20 minutes, an eternity on Wall Street. Traders blamed Nasdaq for hundreds of millions of dollars of losses, and the mistake exposed the exchange to litigation, fines, and reputational costs.

The managers screwed up. They pushed forward when they should have stopped.

The Anatomy of a Disaster

A few weeks ago I wrote a long-form piece called The Anatomy of a Disaster where I dissected the worst industrial accident on US soil in 25 years. Nasdaq’s Facebook IPO crisis follows a similar pattern. While I focus more on causes and prevention in my piece, the HBR piece on the Facebook IPO touches more on what to do when you’re already in a disaster. Two great tips they give are:

  1. Learn to stop. When faced with a surprising event, we often want to push through and keep going. But sticking to a plan in the face of surprising new information can be a recipe for disaster.”
  2. Do, monitor, diagnose. Sometimes stopping isn’t an option. If we don’t keep going, things will fall apart right away. What can we do then?” If a patient has stopped breathing, start “with a task, such as intubating the patient. The next step is monitoring: you check if performing the task had the expected effect. If it didn’t, then you move onto the next step and come up with a new possible diagnosis. And then you go back to tasks because you need to do something — for example, administer medications or replace the bag — to test your new theory.”

(The HBR guest writers were András Tilcsik and Chris Clearfield, who recently published Meltdown: Why Our Systems Fail and What We Can Do About It)

Toys”R”Us, Part II

Yesterday I wrote about the Toys”R”Us liquidation. My prototyping, Neuroscientist brother, Tim, pointed out that the phrase category killer is a bit confusing. I wrote back:

Category killer doesn’t mean that a company killed the category.. it means that they dominated (or co-dominated) it due to their focus and scale.

Toys”R”Us was a category killer because they niched down on one thing and one thing only. So while 70 years ago the mom & pop corner stores or Macy’s or Sears may have had a toy section or toy aisle, they didn’t know toys well, their selection was bad, they couldn’t sell toys cheaply, they had no leverage with toy manufacturers, they weren’t known for selling toys, and they didn’t really care about toys to begin with.

There were other toy stores, but they were small operations, making toys in the back, or only able to buy from local toy manufacturers. They were focused but had no efficiency, no scale. There was a huge opportunity for the first chain toy store – a big-box toy store – that could bring together focus, scale, efficiency, and brand.

Toys”R”Us Becomes Category Killer

History.com published a nice piece Monday about the history of Toys”R”Us. Returning from WWII, Charles Lazarus’ intuition told him that America was about to have a lot more babies. After opening a baby furniture store in his father’s bike repair shop, customers started asking for toys. As parents kept returning to buy toys for their growing children, Lazarus got out of the children’s furniture business and went all in on toys.

Big-box stores like Toys ‘R’ Us astonished the era’s consumers, who had simply never seen stores that big and crammed with merchandise. “What Lazarus really captured was this sense of American abundance after the war and after all those years of depression,” says Richard Gottlieb, founder of Global Toy Experts and an authority on the toy business.

From Wikipedia: “At its peak, Toys “R” Us was considered a classic example of a category killer, a business that specializes so thoroughly and efficiently in one sector that it pushes out competition from both smaller specialty stores and larger general retailers.”

Sadly, after Lazarus retired, Toys”R”Us began to lose it’s way. In 2005, Bain Capital, KKR, and Vornado Realty Trust announced a leveraged buyout (LBO). And as is typical for these types of private equity plays, the cost cutting began.

But as Toys ‘R’ Us dialed back its offerings, it cut back on the magic, too. When Toys ‘R’ Us changed its focus from the toys themselves to undercutting the competition, “You didn’t get the elation anymore,” says Gottlieb. “They failed because they ceased to love toys.”

Had Toys”R”Us remained focused on their core values and competency, I think they could have adapted and weathered the back-to-back storms of Walmart (the biggest big-box store) and Amazon.

Toys”R”Us, Category Killers, Putin & Dropbox

It’s Monday, March 19, 2018 and today we’re talking about: Toys”R”Us to Liquidate All US & UK Assets, the Concept of Category Killers, Putin Preserving Power, and Dropbox to IPO on Friday.

Toys”R”Us Liquidation

Toys”R”Us filed to liquidate all of its US and UK assets last week after filing for bankruptcy last September. The 70-year-old retail toy store has 875 stores in North America, 100 stores in the UK, and 64,000 employees.

I was a Toys”R”Us Kid. My parents never took me there or bought me toys, but I sure loved their commercials growing up. I can hear the jingle now. But what happened to all of those happy snaggletoothed 80’s and 90’s kids with their beloved over-priced plastic? Apparently they grew up, had kids themselves, and then didn’t take them to Toys”R”Us either.

Customers have been choosing Walmart, Target, and Amazon over the past few decades, systematically demolishing several brick and mortar retail sectors: records, books, consumer electronics, office supplies, and now toys. That’s Tower Records (defunct), Virgin Records (defunct), Barnes & Noble (Feb 2018: layoffs), Borders (defunct), Best Buy (March 2018: shutting down 250 Best Buy Mobile stores), Staples (March 2014: closing 225 stores), and OfficeMax (May 2014: closing 400 stores).

Now, my childhood dream of simply stepping foot inside of a Toys”R”Us is crumbling before my eyes. It seems likely that all 1600 stores world wide will be closed, franchised, or liquidated. And I predict that any franchises will be doomed from the start without the ongoing support of the corporate brand.

I guess we’re all Amazon kids now..

Category Killers

Like the top dogs of each of the other industries above, Toys”R”Us was considered a “category killer.” Category Killers are deep specialists in a sector who leverage their narrow focus to gain a competitive edge over less focused firms through increased bargaining power, pricing tactics, large selection, and strong branding.

UPDATE: Category Killers came up again in detail here.

76.6% of Votes For Putin

Vladimir Putin was re-elected Sunday as President of Russia for another 6 year term. He has been either President or Prime Minister of Russia since 1999 when Boris Yeltsin resigned and choose Putin as his successor.

It’s widely believed that – despite Putin’s popularity in Russia – the results are not what they seem. The 67.5% turnout is suspiciously high and reports of ballot-box stuffing and forced voting have already surfaced.

Alexei Navalny, Putin’s biggest political opponent, was barred from even running in the election after being convicted of embezzlement. The charges are believed to be politically motivated and retaliation for Navalny’s anti-corruption campaigns. The 7 other candidates in the race appealed only to niche populations and had no serious hopes of winning the election.

And while term limits (of 2 consecutive 6-year terms) prevent him from running for President again in 2024, Putin can just “sit out” for a term as Prime Minister – exactly like he did in 2008. Assuring that one of his puppets would become President and allow him to govern from the Prime Minister’s seat was easy in 2008 and could be just as easy in 2024.

But regardless of interference allegations, Putin was already assured victory before the election. I mean, he only held one campaign event. So why interfere with a race you’re supposed to win?

Mandate. Putin and his allies can now point to a 67.5% voter turnout and a 76.6% victory as a mandate from the Russian people to rule however he sees fit. Keep an eye out for new policies and announcements as Putin enters his 2nd “lame duck” term.

Putin consistently proves that in order to maintain power you must get the right pieces to the right place at the right time. Being secretive and covert is a nice-to-have.

Dropbox IPO

Dropbox is poised to IPO this Friday. Offering shares at a price of $16-18, the cloud-storage company is attempting to raise up to $650 million. On the high end, the company would be valued at $7.1 billion – 30% lower than it’s peak in 2014.

While I like Dropbox and am one of the 11 million paying customers (of 500 million), the competition is fierce in the cloud storage market and the company has really struggled to clearly differentiate itself from competitors and launch other high-value services for small and medium size businesses.

To me, Dropbox is yet another case of Silicon Valley Hot Potato… it’s fun to get your hands on stock for a bit, but if you want to make money after the first few rounds, you’d better not be left holding it when the music stops. The question for current and would-be investors is: Has the music already stopped?